BONFILS (Tov Elem), JOSEPH BEN SAMUEL


BONFILS (Tov Elem), JOSEPH BEN SAMUEL
BONFILS (Tov Elem), JOSEPH BEN SAMUEL (11th century), the first French scholar about whom more than his name is known; called by Rashi's disciples "R. Joseph the Great." A contemporary and colleague of R. Elijah the Elder of Le Mans, he was born in Narbonne, but lived at Limoges and at Anjou. Bonfils was among the early few who shaped the Jewish way of life and halakhic tradition in France and Germany; his principal decisions are frequently quoted by later rabbinic authorities. His positive attitude toward the recitation of piyyutim in the prayers (Shibbolei ha-Leket, Prayers, 28) and his decisions with regard to taxation exerted particularly great influence, the latter serving as a basis for the later takkanot ("regulations") of the Jewish communities in France and Germany. Bonfils copied in his own hand and for his own personal use, some of the more important books of his predecessors, and the later rishonim relied heavily on these copies in order to establish correct versions of these texts. Among these books are: Halakhot Gedolot (cf. Semag, Lavin, 60 end; Tos. to Naz. 59a); Seder Tanna'im ve-Amora'im (Tos. to Naz. 57b); Seder Tikkun Shetarot (Tos. to Git. 85b); Hilkhot Terefot by gershom b. judah and Teshuvot ha-Ge'onim (Tos. to Ḥul. 46–47; Tos. to Pes. 30a); as well as works on Hebrew grammar, liturgy and masorah. There is no basis for S.J. Rapoport 's assumption that the collection of geonic responsa published by D. Cassel (Teshuvot Ge'onim Kadmonim, Berlin, 1848) is the one copied by Bonfils. Bonfils belongs to the classical French school of paytanim and his piyyutim are composed in the difficult language adopted by the writers of this genre, all being based on midrashic material, interspersed with numerous halakhot concerning the day on which the piyyutim are to be recited. Early authorities quoted from his piyyutim in order to arrive at halakhic decisions (Tos. to Pes. 115b; Or Zaru'a 2:256; Raban, 532). Some of Bonfils' piyyutim are to be found in the maḥzor according to the French rite, but for the most part they have been superseded by later compositions easier to follow. Of his commentary on the Pentateuch, mentioned by Isaac de Lattes, not even one quotation has been preserved. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: D. Kassel (ed.), Teshuvot Ge'onim Kadmonim (1848), introd. by S.J.L. Rapoport; Gross, Gal Jud, 308; Davidson, Oẓar, 4 (1933), 404, S.V. Yosef Tov Elem (ben Shemu'el). (Israel Moses Ta-Shma)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Bonfils, Joseph ben Samuel (Tov Elem; Tuv Elem) — (fl. 11 th cent)    French talmudist. He was born in Narbonne and lived at Limoges and Anjou. He wrote religious poems, biblical and talmudic commentaries, and codifications of Jewish law …   Dictionary of Jewish Biography

  • Joseph Tov Elem — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Bonfils. Joseph Tov Elem ou Tobelem (hébreu : יוסף טוב עלם בן שמואל Yossef Tov Elem ben Shmouel « Joseph Bon Fils , fils de Samuel » ; français/sarphatique/shuadit : Joseph Bonfils) est… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Joseph Bonfils — Joseph Tov Elem Pour les articles homonymes, voir Bonfils. Joseph Tov Elem ben Samuel (יוסף טוב עלם בן שמואל), en français Joseph Bonfils ou Jospeh Tobelem, est un rabbin français de la première moitié du XIème siècle. Il est connu pour ses… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Joseph Tobelem — Joseph Tov Elem Pour les articles homonymes, voir Bonfils. Joseph Tov Elem ben Samuel (יוסף טוב עלם בן שמואל), en français Joseph Bonfils ou Jospeh Tobelem, est un rabbin français de la première moitié du XIème siècle. Il est connu pour ses… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • PUBLIC AUTHORITY — PUBLIC AUTHORITY, in the context of this article, a term referring to an authoritative body composed of representatives of the public – whether appointed or elected by the latter – and entrusted with the duty and power to arrange various matters… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • COMMUNITY — antiquity middle ages character and structures functions and duties individual centers the muslim caliphate in the east …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • FRANCE — (Heb. פְרַאנְצִיָּה and צָרְפַת), country in Western Europe. This entry is arranged according to the following outline: from the first settlements unil the revolution the roman and merovingian periods from the carolingians until the eve of the… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • TAXATION — This article is arranged according to the following outline: historical aspects legal aspects the biblical period the talmudic period the post talmudic period in general yardsticks of tax assessment taxable property Place of Residence, Business,… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Bible massorétique — Massorah Un feuillet du codex d Alep, comprenant de nombreuses notes massorétiques marginales. La Massore ou Massorah (hébreu : מסורה, chaîne ou tradition) est un pr …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Massora — Massorah Un feuillet du codex d Alep, comprenant de nombreuses notes massorétiques marginales. La Massore ou Massorah (hébreu : מסורה, chaîne ou tradition) est un pr …   Wikipédia en Français


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